Key Messages

This article provides technology options for the treatment of Faecal Sludge (FS) in developing countries to minimise exposure to FS and assesses its benefits along with possible revenue generation from reuse. FS that is collected from septic tanks poses management challenges in urban areas of developing countries. Currently, FS is dumped into the urban and peri-urban environment, posing great risks to the soil, surface water and groundwater quality.


(*Shubhra Singh, Sujaya Rathi, and N. Janardhana Raju are the other authors of this paper.)

Technology options for faecal sludge management in developing countries: Benefits and revenue from reuse